Taxonomy Dimensions

From PPDM Wiki
Revision as of 19:16, 20 January 2012 by Geordies (Talk | contribs)
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Taxonomy Dimensions

Introduction

Taxonomies are used to classify records such as unstructured documents so that each document will be easy to identify and retrieve later. Traditionally, records managers created a single corporate taxonomy that combined many kinds of information in a single classification system. Each record was assigned to a single complex class (node) in the corporate taxonomy.

This is a multidimensional taxonomy

Taxonomy1.JPG

Unsuccessful taxonomies attempt to combine multiple dimensions into one grand scheme; sadly, blending many dimensions into a single taxonomy is often a recipe for disaster. Today’s technology allows us to perform classifications that are far more complex and robust than traditional multi-dimensional classifications can support. Successful taxonomies only deal with one dimension at a time (more about that later).

Taxonomies can, and should be built in single dimensions. Individual taxonomies are used to classify a record in single dimension; the output from each dimension selection is often thought of as “meta data”. Single dimensional taxonomies are less subject to changes in infrastructure or procedures, since the contents of a defunct structure don’t affect another structure.

This is a faceted taxonomy

Taxonomy2.JPG

Combining the classifications results from many dimensions lets us very accurately identify and describe documents. Think of this as dimensional or faceted triangulation. Each dimension contains a single kind of information. Often the information contents of a dimension are hierarchical, although this is not always the case. In each dimension, all of the child values are kinds of (or subtypes of) the parent.

Here are some typical dimensions used in the E&P business, defined by a PPDM Workgroup:

Asset type (business objects)

Definition

Assets are physical objects, such as property or data that have economic value to an organization or company. Often, assets are listed on annual reports as contributors to the total net worth of an organization. Common examples include wells, real property, facilities, land rights and seismic data.

This category is not to be confused with products (information or data assets) that are produced during work, such as porosity plots, shot point maps or drilling reports. Identify and classify these products using the Record Type category. Source for taxonomy contents PPDM Taxonomy work group, may be based on KID TYPE 1 and 2 in Discovery

Synonyms and aliases

  • Preferred term: Asset Type
  • Subject

Usage

  • It is important to be able to identify Assets so that they can be quickly and accurately associated with financing, legal agreements, regulatory reporting requirements, contractual obligations or asset divestiture.
  • Assets are identified and listed on corporate reports that are disseminated to the public, share holders and boards of directors.
  • Pertinent and relevant information and data must be traced, identified and linked to one or more Assets, so that retrieval is complete, consistent and correct.
  • Common business practice may assign the same name to one or more assets. For example, a field and a processing facility built to support that field are both assigned the same name. To understand whether a reference is to the field or the facility, one must first understand the context in which the reference is made.

Description and Examples

  • Field documents are linked to the asset that they support.
    i.	Observers logs are linked to seismic lines 
   ii.	Well daily reports are linked to wells
  iii.	Blueprint plans and “as built” documents are associated with a facility 
  • Master data stores are used to connect instances of assets as they are used in technical applications. For example, a PPDM master data store tracks the (different) Unique Well Identifiers to link a well in each application project.


Business Process

Definition

  • A set of one or more linked procedures or activities which collectively realize a business objective or policy goal, normally within the context of an organizational structure defining functional roles and relationships. (Workflow Management Coalition Terminology & Glossary)
  • A business process is a systematic plan or orderly arrangement of activities; it is usually comprised of many activities and regulates their execution and sequence.

References

Source for taxonomy contents

  • The Shell work in this area would provide a good reference, if Shell is willing to make it available.

Synonyms and aliases

  • Process
  • Procedure

Usage

  • A business process is typically associated with operational objectives and business relationships, for example, well log acquisition.
  • A business process has defined conditions triggering its initiation in each new instance.
  • Kinds of values in this dimension include oilfield services, planning, operations, reclamation etc.
  • Workflow Management Coalition Terminology & Glossary


Chemicals or Materials

Definition

  • Chemical: A substance obtained by a chemical process or used for producing a chemical effect (Merriam Webster Online])
  • Material: Items needed for the performance of a task or activity. (Merriam Webster Online).
  • Substance: (1) Basic elements from which something can be developed (2) Physical material from which something is made or which has discrete existence. (Merriam Webster Online).

Source for taxonomy contents

  • UNSPSC segment 12

Synonyms and aliases

  • Substance

Usage

  • Physical matter, stuff, could be anything
  • Acids, inhibitors, gels, additives, accelerators, etc.


Service

Definition

Source for taxonomy contents

  • UNSPSC segment 71

Synonyms and aliases

  • No useful alternate terms found

Usage

  • May be used in the procurement of services
  • May be used to advertise the services available from an organization

Description

(From http://www.answers.com/service&r=67#Thesaurus)

In economics and marketing, a service is the non-material equivalent of a good. Service provision has been defined as an economic activity that does not result in ownership, and this is what differentiates it from providing physical goods. It is claimed to be a process that creates benefits by facilitating either a change in customers, a change in their physical possessions, or a change in their intangible assets.

By supplying some level of skill, ingenuity, and experience, providers of a service participate in an economy without the restrictions of carrying stock (inventory) or the need to concern themselves with bulky raw materials. On the other hand, their investment in expertise does require marketing and upgrading in the face of competition which has equally few physical restrictions.

Services can be described in terms of their main attributes.

  • Intangibility - They cannot be seen, handled, smelled, etc. There is no need for storage. Because services are difficult to conceptualize, marketing them requires creative visualization to effectively evoke a concrete image in the customer's mind. From the customer's point of view, this attribute makes it difficult to evaluate or compare services prior to experiencing the service.
  • Perishability - Unsold service time is "lost", that is, it cannot be regained. It is a lost economic opportunity. For example a doctor that is booked for only two hours a day cannot later work those hours— she has lost her economic opportunity. Other service examples are airplane seats (once the plane departs, those empty seats cannot be sold), and theatre seats (sales end at a certain point).
  • Lack of transportability - Services must be consumed at the point of "production".
  • Lack of homogeneity - Services are typically modified for each client or each new situation (customised). Mass production of services is very difficult. This can be seen as a problem of inconsistent quality. Both inputs and outputs to the processes involved providing services are highly variable, as are the relationships between these processes, making it difficult to maintain consistent quality.
  • Labour intensity - Services usually involve considerable human activity, rather than precisely determined process. Human resource management is important. The human factor is often the key success factor in service industries. It is difficult to achieve economies of scale or gain dominant market share.
  • Demand fluctuations - It is very difficult to estimate demand. Demand can vary by season, time of day, business cycle, etc.
  • Buyer involvement - Most service provision requires a high degree of interaction between client and service provider.


Discipline

Definition

Domain of applied, focused and specialized knowledge, acquired through persistent research, learning, development, and experience. A discipline may be applied either independently or dependently to other areas of specialized knowledge for overall benefit.

Source for taxonomy contents

  • PPDM work group

Synonyms and aliases

  • Profession
  • Expertise
  • Authority
  • Branch of learning
  • Field

Usage

  • Creators and consumers – who makes it and who are the users of it?
  • Recognition of the (changing) value of the information product to different disciplines over the business life cycle. These are the consumers.
  • Grouping of knowledge that is derived experientially, that contributes to the overall development of the discipline. Learn by doing, learn from our mistakes, learn from other disciplines.

Description

  • Kinds of values in this dimension include petrophysics, geology, land management etc.
  • Natural issues in this dimension include granularity in terminology (branches and sub branches in discipline) and cross discipline activities and functions.
  • Traditionally, each discipline has often been associated with a specific organizational structure, but this clarity has been obscured by the existence of organizations that are cross-disciplinary in nature.
  • Traditional “silo” views of the functions associated with each discipline are changing with time, this dimension may be transient in nature.

Information Item type (Record type)

Definition

  • Evidence resulting from or during business processes or activities. Examples include products, data, information and knowledge in any form or media. Records are usually associated with one or more Assets.
  • The term “Record” is commonly used in legislation and regulation in this context.
   a."record" includes any correspondence, memorandum, book, plan, map, drawing, 
   diagram, pictorial or graphic work, photograph, film, microform, sound recording, 
   videotape, machine-readable record and any other documentary material,  
   regardless of physical form or characteristics, and any copy of any of those   
   things. 
   (http://www.privcom.gc.ca/legislation/02_06_01_01_e.asp) 
  • Note: this concept is vaguely understood and defined by most practitioners. The semantics behind the terms used reflect cultural or application driven usage. Beware…

Source

  • PPDM derived from Discovery (product group and product type)

Synonyms and aliases

  • Information type – any piece of data, structured or unstructured, that has been created and has not met the end of its life cycle.
  • Product type
  • Content type
  • Document type
  • Subject type
  • Topic
  • Result type

Usage

  • Locate all objects of a particular type that are associated with an asset.

Description and Examples

  • Technical Documents, Marketing Documents or Procedure documents.


Oilfield Tools and Equipment

Definition

  • Tool: Something (as an instrument or apparatus) used in an operation or necessary in the practice of a vocation of a practice or profession. (Merriam Webster Online)
  • Equipment: (1) All the fixed assets, other than land and buildings, of a business enterprise. (2) A set of materials or equipment designed for a particular use. (Merriam Webster Online)

Source

  • UNSPSC

Synonyms and aliases

  • Apparatus
  • Instrument
  • Mechanism

Usage

  • Includes tools that are oilfield specific.
    • sonic tools, drill bits, packers, well control valves, etc.
  • Includes basic materials that typically are not produced in the oil industry.
  • This includes nuts, bolts, light bulbs, steel, pumps, etc.

Organisational structures

Definition

 or•gan•i•za•tion (ôr'gə-nĭ-zā'shən) n.  (http://www.answers.com/organization) 
  • The act or process of organizing.
  • The state or manner of being organized: a high degree of organization.
  • Something that has been organized or made into an ordered whole.
  • Something made up of elements with varied functions that contribute to the whole and to collective functions; an organism.
  • A group of persons organized for a particular purpose; an association: a benevolent organization.
  • A structure through which individuals cooperate systematically to conduct business.
  • The administrative personnel of such a structure.

Source for taxonomy

  • Very company specific and transient; no standard source identified.
  • PPDM will not do this taxonomy
  • Relative Priority = LOW or do not do

Synonyms and Aliases

  • Department
  • Group
  • Business unit

Usage

  • Matrix managed organisations can be complex, with many disciplines reporting to many organizations.
  • It should be noted that organisation structures may be transient in function and terminology; as a result terms may not be well understood after several years have passed.

Description and examples

  • Represent the organisational structure within typical organizations. This dimension may be generalized to include “typical” levels of organization.
  • For individual corporate implementations, this dimension could be expanded to include organization levels specific to the corporation.
  • Kinds of values in this dimension include finance, exploration, marketing, HR etc.


Activity (dropped)

Definition

  • A description of a piece of work that forms one logical step within a process. An activity may be a manual activity, which does not support computer automation, or a workflow (automated) activity. A workflow activity requires human and/or machine resources to support process execution; where human resource is required, an activity is allocated to a workflow participant. (www.wfmc.org/standards/docs/TC-1011_term_glossary_v3.pdf)

Sources for taxonomy

  • Business Process Management Initiative (www.bpmi.org)
  • Work Flow Management Consortium (www.wfmc.org)

Synonyms and aliases

  • Status (state of the activity)
  • Milestone (significant states of the activity)
  • Decision point (significant intersections between activities or planned / possible activities)
  • Task
  • Work flow
  • Step
  • Node
  • Work element
  • Process element
  • Operation
  • Instruction

Usage

  • See the examples in Workflow Management Coalition Terminology & Glossary
  • An activity may be related to one or more business processes
  • A business process is usually comprised of one or more activities
  • Status indicates the state of an activity. For example, the planning activity is complete and the execution activity is underway.

Description and Examples

  • Activity is described with verbs: design, conduct, audit, plan, review, approve etc
  • Activities may be conducted by people or automated processes.
  • Activities are usually initiated by a defined condition or state; ideally these conditions are outlines as policies, practices, procedures and business rules.

Status

  • This subject area is related to work flow and is probably not well suited to taxonomy development. Our objective is to define the business process that resulted in the creation of information, rather than the work flow steps.
  • This dimension will be DROPPED from the proposal

Meta Data (Dublin Core)

  • These meta data elements are not well suited for use in a taxonomy or classification system. They are attributes that describe information.
  • These attributes are supported in the PPDM Records Management module.
    • For a mapping between PPDM and the Dublin Core download
  • Definitions for each term are available from the Dublin core web site. See Dublin Core Metadata Initiative for details.
  • In addition, the work group may develop business rules that govern how values to use are to be determined
  • A partial list of Dublin core terms includes (note that many of these terms may be additionally refined if desired; these refinements are documented by dc):
    • Title
    • Creator
    • Subject
    • Description
    • Publisher
    • Contributor
    • Date
    • Type
    • Format
    • Identifier
    • Source
    • Language
    • Relations
    • Coverage
    • Rights

dc:period (Retention / Content Life Cycle / Knowledge Management Value)

  • Go to DCMI Period Encoding Scheme for details about this Dublin Core term. Period is a qualification of the data type DATE.
    • This term supports the use of a name or descriptor and a start / end date or the definition of a term (period).
  • 'Corporate records' that must be published to the corporate memory vs 'work-in-progress' which will be discarded as soon as no longer needed.
  • This concept is strongly connected to the Records Management concept of Retention Scheduling.

dc:date (Authored date, created date, review date, expiration date)

  • “A date associated with an event in the life cycle of the resource”
  • This term can be further refined using the following dc refining elements.
    • dc:available - Date (often a range) that the resource will become or did become available
    • dc:created - Date of creation of the resource.
    • dc:dateAccepted - Date of acceptance of the resource (e.g. of thesis by university department, of article by journal, etc.).
    • dc:dateCopyrighted - Date of a statement of copyright.
    • dc:dateSubmitted - Date of submission of the resource (e.g. thesis, articles, etc.).
    • dc:issued - Date of formal issuance (e.g., publication) of the resource.
    • dc:modified - Date on which the resource was changed.
    • dc:valid - Date (often a range) of validity of a resource.

dc:coverage – Geographic or geopolitical areas (Spatial identity)

  • The Dublin core describes coverage spatially and temporally. Our use is for spatial only, but we can add temporal if desired.
  • Spatial can be further qualified as one of:
  a.Box - The DCMI Box identifies a region of space using its geographic limits.
  b.Point – a point location
  c.ISO3166 – country names
  d.TGN – the Getty thesaurus of geographic names

dc:type – DCMIType

Definition

A list of types used to categorize the nature or genre of the content of the resource. Describes the basic constitution of a thing; it is an image, text, sound or physical object.

Source

Dublin core

Synonyms and aliases

  • Preferred Term: DCMIType

Usage

Description and Examples

  • Not Technical Documents, Marketing Documents or Procedure documents. The dc specification does not allow this type of classification; a different dimension is used (see product type).
  • The Dublin Core maintains a vocabulary list that describes the type of content of the resource

dc:format – Media used for rendering the product

Definition

  • The organization of information according to pre-set specifications, usually for computer processing.

Source

Synonyms

  • Arrangement

Usage

  • Kinds of values in this dimension include paper, film, CD ROM etc.
  • The Dublin Core specifies two refining types
   i.Extent: The size or duration of the resource.
  ii.Medium:The material or physical carrier of the resource. The vocabulary for 
     this list is referenced as 
     http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/media-types/media-types

dc:language

Definition

(http://www.answers.com/language)

  • Communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols.
  • Such a system including its rules for combining its components, such as words.
  • Such a system as used by a nation, people, or other distinct community; often contrasted with dialect.

Source

  • The Dublin Core recognizes three vocabulary lists for this term:
    • ISO639-2
    • RFC1766
    • RFC3066

Synonyms and Aliases

  • Tongue
  • Idiom
  • Lingo
  • Dialect
  • Patios
  • Vernacular

Usage

  • The language in which a report is presented.
  • Kinds of values in this dimension include English, French etc.

dc:relation – Other System Identifiers

  • The Dublin Core captures a number of refining elements for relations, each of which specifies a slightly different semantic use of the term. We may use several of these:
    • conformsTo
    • hasFormat
    • hasPart
    • hasVersion
    • isFormatOf
    • isPartOf
    • isReferencedBy
    • isReplacedBy
    • isRequiredBy
    • isVersionOf
    • references
    • replaces
    • requires
  • What other systems this object may be found in and linking meta data attributes, pointers, references etc that provide “glue” between disparate systems
Personal tools